Here are the tidbits I saw:
Luxury has a specific meaning in economics. It is a good whose purchases go up faster than rising income. The big moneymaker in town is Al Swearengen, and the luxury he shares for important meetings is: canned peaches. Today, these are probably an inferior good (one whose purchases decline as income increases).
The arrival of an army detachment leads to a consideration of opportunity costs and tradeoffs for ths soldiers: desert to pan for gold and possible pay the consequences, or report back for duty after some rest and recreation.
Later in the episode, Farnum (the mayor and a hotelier) sets himself up as a monopolist to sell provisions to the army detachment. There are not a lot of specifics, but later the quartermaster for the unit complains about the resulting high prices. There is no mention of the monopsony power the army detachment has.
Dr. Cochran engages Swearengen and his prostitutes for the care of the dying Reverend Smith. Later Swearengen euthanizes Smith in an act reminiscent of current debates about the cost of health care for the terminally ill.
Alma's marriage to Brom Garrett had implicit value. Apparently, Alma's father was able to leverage his connections into $47,000 in loans which he expected Alma to help him cover.
The conflict regarding the value of a white person's life vs. a Chinese person's life continues with a murder of a Chinese laundry worker. Swearengen refuses Wu's request for retribution.
Swearengen suspects that inciting unrest regarding the Chinese is a business method being used by Tolliver to take over the burgeoning Chinese Alley. This dovetails with Tolliver's speculative purchase of a lot on the alley several episodes earlier.
Tolliver tries to buy/bribe the protection services of the army. The price of $50,000 gives an indication of how much he thinks he can make in future profits.
Lastly, Swearengen had bribed a magistrate (Clagett) to "handle" an arrest warrant on him, and then had bribed the Clagett's bag man (Adams) to kill the Clagett when it became clear that he was going to take the money and demand more. Anticpating this, Clagett had arrived with the army detachment. Clagett and Swearengen then begin to negotiate with Adams present, feeling each other out for imperfect information. Clagett committs a major bargaining error by revealing that the warrant is on his person. Suspecting that Clagett is the only person who both knows of the warrant, and his location, Swearengen directs Adams to kill Clagett on the spot.
See my earlier Deadwood posts:
See my earlier economics in Deadwood posts at:
Prices Only Economists Can Appreciate in Deadwood
Corruption's Prices in Deadwood
Deadwood's Invisible Hand
Derivatives in Deadwood
Collusion and Asymmetric Information in Deadwood
Elasticities in Deadwood
21st Century Economics in Deadwood