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Dr R.M. de Jonge

CATASTROPHES IN HUMAN HISTORY
(Revised List until 550 AD)

Dr. R.M. de Jonge , drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com
January, 2009

3201 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe
Pre-Dynastic Period
(96 years before the start of 1st Dynasty)
Duration: 70 days
Nature: forest-fires, rains, floodings, cold
EP c.40,000 men
c.3,000 casualties in Egypt (7.5%)
Casualties were only counted in Egypt.

3006 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe
1st Dynasty, 5th King Den-Udimu (c.3012-2992 BC)
Duration: 11 days
Nature: rains, floodings
EP c.100 thousand men
c.2,600 casualties in Egypt (2.6%)
Casualties were only counted in Egypt.

c.2742 BC Worldwide Volcano Catastrophe
3rd Dynasty, 2nd king Djoser (c.2753-2723 BC)
Cotopaxi Volcano, Equador / Volcano Piton de la Fournaise, Runion, western Indian Ocean
Duration: 7 years of famine
Nature: dimming Sun, cold, drought, crop failure, famine
EP c.210 thousand men
c.9,000 casualties in Egypt (4.3%)
As far as known casualties were only counted in Egypt.

2344 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe
6th Dynasty, 1st King Teti (c.2370-2338 BC)
Biblical Flood
Duration: 2+2= 4 months [2 months Earth in tail of Comet (dark), 2 months after it (cold)]
Nature: forest-fires, torrential rains, floodings, cold
WP c.4.8 million
Casualties: c.2.6 million people (54%)
(Ended 5th Dynasty, later also Old Kingdom; ended all civilizations on Earth)
Low temperatures and drought for centuries
(well documented)

c.2020 BC Worldwide Volcano Catastrophe
11th Dynasty, 5th king Mentuhotep II (c.2026-2014 BC)
Volcano of Long Island, NE of New Guinea / Volcano of Changbaishan, Eastern China / Volcano of Liamuiga, West Indies
Duration: 4 years of famine
Nature: dimming Sun, cold, drought, crop failure, famine
WP c.3.5 million
Casualties: c.90 thousand men (2.6%)

1899 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe
12th Dynasty, 4th king Sesostris II (1905-1886 BC)
Duration: 11 days
Nature: forest-fires, rains, and floodings
WP c.4.2 million men
Casualties: c.260 thousand men (6.2%)

1628 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe
Second Intermediate Period
Start 15th Dynasty (ended 14th Dynasty)
Deucalion Flood
Duration: 9-10 days
Nature: forest-fires, rains, floodings
WP c.5.6 million men
Casualties: c.510 thousand people (9.1%)
Low temperatures and drought for at least a century

c.1370 BC Worldwide Volcano Catastrophe
18th Dynasty (New Kingdom), 9th king Amenhotep III (c.1388-1351 BC)
Santorini Volcano on Thera (Greece)
Duration: 50 days dimming of Sun, 2 years dust in the air, 7 years of famine
Nature: three phases, dimming Sun, cold, drought, crop failure, famine
WP c.12 million
Casualties: c.950 thousand men (7.9%)

1159 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe (tree-ring dating*)
20th Dynasty, King Ramses IV (c.1163-1156 BC)
Dardanus Flood
(ended New Kingdom, and several other civilizations)
Duration: 80 days
Nature: forest-fires, torrential rains, floodings, cold
WP c.18 million men
Casualties: c.5.8 million people (c.32%).
Low temperatures and drought for centuries

430 BC Worldwide Catastrophe (a.o. tree-ring dating*)
Dynasty 27, king Artaxerxes I (465-424 BC)
Duration: 13 days
Nature: forest fires, rains, and floodings ?
WP c.35 million men
Casualties: c.830 thousand men (2.4%)

207 BC Worldwide Comet Catastrophe (tree-ring dating*)
Ptolemy IV Philopator (222-204 BC)
Duration: 8 days
Nature: forest-fires, rains, floodings
WP c.38 million men
Casualties: c.530 thousand men (1.4%)

44 BC Worldwide Comet / Volcano Catastrophe (tree-ring dating*)
Ptolemy XV Caesarion (44-30 BC)
Ambrym Volcano, Vanuatu (New Hebrides) / Etna Volcano, Sicily, Italy
Duration: 5 days / 2 months, 2 years
Nature: forest-fires, rains, floodings / dust, cold, drought, crop failure, famine
WP c.40 million men
Casualties: c.240 thousand people (0.60%)

235 AD Worldwide Volcano Catastrophe (tree-ring dating*)
Taupo Volcano, North Island, New Zealand
Emperor Maximinus (235238 AD)
Duration: 45 days, 1 year of famine
Nature: dust, cold, drought, crop failure, famine
WP c.46 million men
Casualties: c.280 thousand men (0.61%)

472 AD Worldwide Volcano Catastrophe
End of the Western Roman Empire
Last Four Emperors
Vesuvius Volcano, Italy / Ilopango Volcano, El Salvador
Duration: 2 months, 2 years of crop failure
Nature: dust, cold, drought, crop failure, famine
WP c.51 million men
Casualties: c.250 thousand men (0.49%)

536 AD Worldwide Volcano Catastrophe
Eruption of the Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia (535-6 AD)
Eruption of the Rabaul Volcano, New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea (540 AD)
Two stage event, 536 AD and 540 AD (a.o. tree-ring dating)
535 AD, two explosions, 4 days of rains and floodings
536 AD, 3 months severe dust, 18 months dust
Nature: sunlight dimmed, dust, drought, cold, crop failure, famine
WP c.53 million men
Casualties: c.2.9 million people (5.5%)
Most casualties in 9 year period (536-544 AD)

Sincerely yours,
Reinoud de Jonge
Email: drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com
The Netherlands, January 2009

P.S.
Sources of data: Monuments and Petroglyphs all over the World (Archaeology)
* Tree-ring data: a.o. M. Baillie
- Ice core samples
This List may contain errors. The subject is difficult!

I am the main author of the books:
De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z & K, Utrecht/Antwerpen, 1996 (ISBN 90-215-2846-0) (Dutch) (192 pgs.)
De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the SunGod Reached America c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9) (384 pgs.). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-3392, USA, also on CD


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